Chapter 14 Quiz – Crime and Community Putting it all Together

Chapter 14 Quiz – Crime and Community Putting it all Together

TRUE/FALSE

1. One of the basic operating principles for effective community focused crime prevention and control is that it requires the simultaneous application of several policies.

2. In areas with higher levels of collective efficacy, lower crime rates were only found in the wealthier neighborhoods.

3. An innovative policing strategy used in Boston’s Gun Project was “pulling levers” and the use of various criminal justice and social service agencies.

4. Problem-oriented policing strategies sprang from policing research in the 1970s that identified a need to reduce response time and increase the quantity and quality of detectives.

5. Problem-solving courts focus on less serious “disorder” offenses and use alternatives to incarceration.

6. By reducing the number of jail days, the Midtown Community Court achieved the anticipated cost savings.

7. Offender reentry includes activities and programs meant to prepare former inmates for their reintegraton into the community and to live as law-abiding citizens.

8. The majority of offenders leaving prison return to their old neighborhood.

9. Research conducted by the Urban Institute found that many parolees had no health care and were not employed four to eight months after release.

10. The failure of prison industries provides justification for increased use of prison-based rehabilitation programs.

11. Prisoners obtaining discretionary release are less likely to recidivate than those who max out their terms.

12. Restrictions on housing, employment opportunities, and civil disabilities adversely affect those released from prison.

13. Without major changes in public attitudes and the quality of programming, prisoner reentry programs will not reduce crime.

14. Restorative justice sanctions seek to punish the offender and build a bond between the victim and community.

15. Restorative justice is dependent upon informal social control which is not as evident in a diverse and largely anonymous modern society.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The new community focus on crime control

a.

is a liberal crime control strategy

b.

is a conservative crime control strategy

c.

enjoys a strong consensus among criminologists

d.

breeds extensive skepticism among criminologists

2. The basic operating principles for the community focus on crime control include

a.

a get tough strategy that includes more arrests and mandatory sentences

b.

a geographic focus and partnerships between criminal justice and non-criminal justice agencies

c.

a shift in power back to criminal justice agencies that uses zero-tolerance policies

d.

a desire to find the single crime policy that will promote effective prevention and control

3. Even poor communities with __________ , in which there is some capacity to control over the neighborhood, have lower crime rates than neighborhoods without it.

a.

collective efficacy

c.

embeddedness

b.

an offender reentry program

d.

all of the above

4. Trust among residents in a neighborhood and their shared expectations about social control is known as

a.

community policing

c.

neighborhood watch

b.

front-loading

d.

collective efficacy

5. An important policy implication of collective efficacy is?

a.

impact of environmental issues

c.

trust in local criminal justice agencies

b.

formal crime reduction strategies

d.

distrust in formal social control

6. The community-focused program that involved a highly focused and multi-agency effort and active participation of community groups in order to reduce youth violence was known as

a.

The Boston Gun Project

c.

The Midtown Community Court

b.

The Chicago Area Project

d.

The New York Zero Tolerance Policy

7. Among the ”pulling levers” strategies used in Operation Cease Fire was?

a.

using plea bargaining to get defendants to plead guilty

b.

arresting gang members with outstanding warrants

c.

providing postrelease services within the first six months

d.

proactive supervision designed to reduce parolee recidivism

8. An evaluation of Operation Cease Fire found

a.

no change as the policy was not implemented as intended

b.

a decrease in the unemployment rate and a reduction in the level of drug activity

c.

a decrease in both violent and property crime in the treatment areas

d.

a decrease in youth homicides and number of calls to police regarding shots fired

9. Community policing is influenced by what theoretical background

a.

routine activities

b.

social process theories

c.

hot spots and broken windows

d.

rational choice and deterrence

10. Practices among various POP programs that drew upon the Boston Gun Project include

a.

nontraditional activities such as requiring store owners to clean their store fronts, trash removal from the street and more lighting for certain areas

b.

the use of social service agencies to describe various services available to targeted offenders, including employment and education services, substance abuse programs and parenting assistance

c.

the use of data analysis to identify and target gang members and other relevant offenders

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

11. Unanswered questions about the future of community policing and POP revolved around

a.

the relationship between visible disorder and serious crime

b.

the desire of law enforcement to partner with the community

c.

quantity and quality of policing

d.

funding, continuity and refocusing of police efforts

12. Community prosecution applies the basic principles of __________ to the prosecution stage of the criminal process.

a.

traditional policing

c.

offender reentry programs

b.

problem-oriented policing

d.

restorative justice

13. The purposes of problem-solving courts are to

a.

target prosecution efforts on a particular problem, neighborhood or type of offender

b.

involve a long-term proactive partnership among the prosecutor’s office, law enforcement, the community and private organizations

c.

use alternatives to incarceration, strict monitoring of sentence conditions and rapid imposition of sentences

d.

all of the above

14. The Midtown Community Court grew out of which of the following problem?

a.

that punishment as a consequence did not change behavior in the desired direction

b.

that there were often no consequences of any sort for committing quality-of-life offenses

c.

that offenders were not punished severely enough for their wrongdoing

d.

that offenders were punished too severely for their wrongdoing

15. For which reason did the Midtown Community Court require sentenced offenders to wear bright blue vests and perform their community service within 24 hours of being sentenced?

a.

to make justice visible and swift

b.

to promote quick healing through restorative justice

c.

to enhance the deterrent effect

d.

all of the above

e.

a & c only

16. What did an evaluation of the Midtown Community Court find?

a.

sentences involving community service were higher than a comparable court

b.

jail sentences were less common than a comparable court

c.

average arrest-to-arraignment time were faster than a comparable court

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

17. The ability of community prosecution to reduce serious crime is questionable because

a.

it is not implemented as intended

b.

it does not get tough on offenders which is what is needed to reduce crime

c.

this is a loophole that allows serious offenders to escape prosecution

d.

whether focusing on quality-of-life crime reduces serious crime remains unproven

18. Offender reentry embraces the operating principles that guide

a.

community prosecution and restorative justice

b.

broken windows theory and problem-oriented policing

c.

problem-oriented policing and community prosecution

d.

community crime control and restorative justice

19. The most important factor in parolees’ adjustment to society was found to be

a.

a job

c.

a place to live

b.

family support

d.

referral to substance abuse treatment

20. Those who return to the community must overcome a number of issues including?

a.

illiteracy

c.

gainful employment

b.

physical and mental health issues

d.

all of the above

21. The purpose of prison-based rehabilitation programs are to respond to the needs of inmates who

a.

have been in prison more than 20 years and need to learn how society has changed

b.

have expired their sentences but have not been granted discretionary parole

c.

need therapy to deal with their anger management issues

d.

have less than a high school education, limited employment experience and histories of alcohol or drug abuse

22. Among the recommendations related to prison reentry advocated by Joan Petersilia is

a.

prison-based rehabilitation programs

b.

restoration of discretionary parole

c.

elimination of certain restriction on convicted offenders

d.

all of the above

23. American society has ignored recommendations for prison programming because

a.

all of the services ex-offenders need are already available

b.

of politics and attitudes regarding crime and criminals

c.

they have traditionally supported discretionary over mandatory release

d.

no research evidence indicates it is important or effective

24. What percent of prisoners obtained their release through discretionary parole?

a.

6

c.

39

b.

16

d.

60

25. Providing postrelease services in the first six months after a prisoner’s release is known as

a.

feedback effect

c.

ecometrics

b.

proactive supervision

d.

front-loading

26. Why have parole agencies failed to provide adequate services for parolees soon after release from prison?

a.

they want to give offenders time to get on their feet first

b.

they do not have the staff or resources to handle their caseloads

c.

they need time to process postrelease paperwork and parole files

d.

all of the above

27. How has the war on drugs provided ex-offenders with a unique barrier to employment?

a.

federal law requires states to revoke their drivers’ licenses

b.

convicted drug offenders are barred from holding jobs in nursing and as barbers

c.

parolees are subjected to urinalysis and lose their job if there is evidence of drug use

d.

a drug conviction bars parolees from receiving a job referral from his/her parole officer

28. Many states restrict access for recently released offenders to which of the following?

a.

receiving welfare

c.

voting

b.

public housing

d.

all of the above

29. Denying voting rights to convicted offenders may keep them from

a.

reducing their likelihood of recidivism

c.

fully reintegrating into the community

b.

holding political office

d.

engaging in the restorative justice process

30. A risk assessment of a parolee’s problems, an analysis of appropriate responses and an assessment of how well they are working are all a part of

a.

discretionary parole release

c.

collective efficacy

b.

proactive supervision

d.

problem-solving reentry

31. In an evaluation of proactive supervision, it was found that

a.

ex-offenders under proactive supervision faired as well as a control group of ex-offenders with regard to amount of time to rearrest

b.

those under proactive supervision did only slightly better than those not under proactive supervision with regard to the amount of time to rearrest

c.

it was too expensive to implement on the scale required for it to reduce crime

d.

there were continuity issues between meetings

32. The restorative justice movement draws heavily on

a.

community persecution

c.

broken windows theory

b.

hot spots

d.

peacemaking traditions

33. The most serious problem with the idea of restorative justice is that

a.

it requires tight-knit families and communities which have largely disappeared

b.

it is inappropriate for less serious offenses like property crimes

c.

it is too expensive to implement on the scale required for it to reduce crime

d.

neither victims nor offenders feel good about the results

34. Restorative justice may well be appropriate and effective for whom?

a.

a repeat drunk driver

b.

a person who kills in self-defense

c.

the juvenile delinquent in a middle-class neighborhood

d.

stranger rape

35. In his discussion of restorative justice, Braithwaite argues that _____(1)_____ social control has more effect on criminal behavior than ____(2)_____ social control.

a.

(1) formal (2) informal

c.

(1) lenient (2) harsh

b.

(1) informal (2) formal

d.

(1) harsh (2) lenient

Need a similar essay? We have qualified writers who can assist. Click ORDER NOW to get a special bonus- Up to 18% Discount Offer!!!

find the cost of your paper